Are Antibiotics and Vaccines too dangerous to be used?

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Are Antibiotics and Vaccines too dangerous to be used?

Post by icedoxx on Sun Jun 29, 2008 1:23 pm

Stage 2 Biology - Summative Human Awareness Essay - By Druva Mitra
Are Antibiotics and Vaccines too dangerous to be used?
Antibiotics are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria. The human body houses many types of bacteria that live peacefully and even some that help the body to function. Some types of bacteria are dangerous and affect the body’s ability to function normally. There are many well known infections that are caused by bacteria; some include tuberculosis, salmonella, syphilis and some forms of meningitis. The use of antibiotics attacks and inhibits the growth of all bacteria, even the beneficial bacteria. Different antibiotics work in different ways, there are 2 major classes of antibiotics, these are categorised by how the antibiotic works, bactericidals and bacteriostatics. Bactericidals actively destroy the bacteria by interfering with the formation of the cell wall or cell contents of the bacteria, as human/animal cells do not have cell walls they are not affected by the antibiotics. Bacteriostatics work by inhibiting synthesis reactions and cell division (binary fission, in the case of bacteria), this type of antibiotics affects both human and bacterial cells in the body, as they affect bacterial cells much more than they affect human cells they can still be effective in managing a bacterial infection.

Biological Relavance:

Bactericidals like penicillin work in two basic steps, they first enter the cell(fig.1) and then the antibiotic interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis. Peptidoglycan is the building material of most bacterial cell walls. Penicillins act by inhibiting the Transpeptidase Enzymes which is involved in the latter stages of peptidoglycan synthesis (G. Kaiser 2007) . This causes the weakened cell walls to collapse (fig.2) causing the contents of the bacterium to leak out into its environment, killing the bacterium.


Fig.1 (Drug Action: How penicillins work [2004]) Fig.2 (Drug Action: How penicillins work [2004])

- Bacteriostatics work by interfering with Protien Synthesis occurring in the cell. An example of this is a group of Antibiotics called Aminoglycosides. They work by causing misreading in the genetic information, stimulating faulty production of RNA. They also inhibit Cell respiration

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Re: Are Antibiotics and Vaccines too dangerous to be used?

Post by Alla on Thu Jul 03, 2008 8:20 am

So far so good. You need to check spelling and remove capitals from words such as antibiotics etc. Also I would not say "stimulating faulty production" because it's not actually stimulating... Choose another phrase.

I could not see the pictures...

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